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Besides all of the above mentioned, biological processes have some limitations, as a narrow range of optimal conditions pH, temperature, nutrient concentration, residence time. Among several other restrictions, it can be cited the inability of biological processes to metabolize recalcitrant compounds. Several studies have been conducted in order to develop technologies that minimize industrial effluents volume and toxicity, aiming to allow not only the removal of contaminant substances, but also the complete mineralization.

Toxicity associated with industrial effluents may be intimately associated with the presence of recalcitrant or refractory compounds. Recalcitrant or refractory compounds are not biodegraded by organisms that normally exist in treatment of biological systems, considering hydraulic retention times usually applied.

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However, they are frequently disposed on aquatic bodies. In this situation, chemical processes appear as a promising alternative for degradation of these pollutant chemical species. For the parameter oils and fat, it can be observed that its concentration is high due to the content of fat present in the raw effluent from processed raw material and the process adopted by industry. With the purpose of increasing efficiency in the ozonation reactions, especially in the removal of organic matter with ozone consumption inferior to the direct ozonation, the catalytic process was used.

Ferrous ions were selected as catalysts for this work. The maximum power of the ozonator in this work was 35 W.

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There was a notorious and characteristic odor of ozone when pure oxygen from the cylinder was used. This could be determined qualitatively by O 3 indicator paper that darkened quickly under power higher than 35 W. Maximum and minimum flow rates were inverted during the treatment, being the flow rate at the low level of 0.

To this extent, atmospheric air was injected through a silicon hose attached to the tube containing a capillary tube, enabling the disruption of superficial tension of the foam.

In all experiments and at the first 10 min of oxidation reaction, there was an intense formation of foam, possibly based on the fast degradation and respective mineralization of effluent to CO 2. Some different causes may be considered to explain this foam formation.

Handbook of Batch Process Design

The wastewater may contain various substances used for cleaning equipment and factory items, such as alkaline phosphates, acids, surfactants and complexing compounds. Furthermore, the foam formation could be favored by the fast degradation and respective mineralization of effluent to CO 2. However, hypotheses investigation were not performed in this work. Table 3 presents the percentage of TOCred and mass ratio of O 3 by oxidized carbon. Overall, it was observed that replicates showed low deviation, which indicates good repeatability and good control of random errors.

An analysis based on results showed that the best average for TOCred Due to the ozonator power and O 2 flow rate, the average ozone mass rate could be determined for the experimental design, being the O 3 mass rate of duplicates 1 and 19 3. The best result for the O 3 mass relation by carbon degraded TOC was 0. Considering economical and safety aspects, it is important because O 3 in excess can compromise the process.

Handbook of Batch Process Design - Paul Sharratt - Bok () | Bokus

It is not possible just through the analysis of the results of Table 3 to evaluate and optimize the best experimental conditions. However, all of the TOCred reduction responses were assessed for statistical analysis generated by Minitab First, the graphic of probabilities of percentage reduction of each output variable TOCred was generated, to verify the normality of experimental data of this planning. Figure 2 shows the graph of normal probability in terms of percentage of TOCred. The points in the figure correspond to the 19 experiments of the exploratory factorial matrix fractional 2 4—1 , conducted in duplicate with three central points.

It can be seen in Figure 2 that the graph does not follow a normal distribution with a p -value of 0. Figure 3 shows the main effects of parameters for percentage of TOCred. It can be seen that for the highest percentage of TOCred, the best condition is found with factors A, B and C adjusted in the central point 33 W; 0. The analysis of variance consists in a group of statistical models such as least squares for the evaluation of total sample variance that can be attributed to different factors of experimental error. Through ANOVA Table 4 , it can be observed that all studied variables were significant on the studied process with p -value, which is approximately zero since we showed only three digits on the table, it appears as being "0.

A p -value ranges from 0 to 1. The p -value is calculated from the observed sample and represents the probability of incorrectly rejecting a null hypothesis that is true indeed type I error. Minitab 16 automatically displays p -values for most hypothesis tests. To the variable response TOCred, the factor power A was more significant than the interaction power-iron AC which indicated that the direct ozonation is more reoccurring.

Based on the design of experiment used, a statistical model was proposed in order to predict the behavior of the catalytic ozonation process. The mathematical model obtained does not demonstrate lack of adjustment and presents an R 2 of Therefore, the optimization of variables can be found at power 35 W , O 2 flow rate 0. The best experiment with variables at the optimized level were carried out obtaining a mean value triplicate of Estimate values of energetic consumption of equipment were determined by experimental measurement considering the time of 30 min.

Table 5 shows the estimated cost of experiments for the experimental planning used. As it can be observed in experiments 1 and 19 of design 2 4—1 , in which the mean was According to the statistical modelling, the optimization of variables shows Loures et al.