Guide Non-Linear Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete

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Log In Sign Up. Nonlinear concrete behaviour Journal of Applied Engineering Sciences, Marian Sabau.

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Traian Onet. Nonlinear concrete behaviour. Structural concrete is a nonlinear material both at strength limit states and service loads. Are presented terms of effects that are primarily observed in concrete, steel or a combination of the two. When considering nonlinear behaviour, an important aspect is whether or not strain localization will occur as size effects.

Recent International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics Articles

The model must first be validated by experiments and benchmark tests to ensure the safety and reliability criteria. In nonlinear finite element procedures, engineers must check their finite element discretization and modelling assumptions used in their analyses. Advanced analysis techniques including finite element method analysis have been increasingly utilized in various forms for the practice of design and construction of concrete structures in recent years.

With nonlinear finite element analysis, a reliable solution can be obtained only after understanding the combination of multiple constitutive models, the treatment of analysis theories in the nonlinear processes, mathematical problems in applying to a softening material such as concrete, and so on. The judgment of the validity of modeling and analysis results has therefore been left to engineers with substantial experience. For some design and analysis problems, a linear analysis may not be sufficient when consider the requirement of satisfying a serviceability limit states such as calculating deflections and crack widths.

For new structures a non-linear analysis may be performed on the structure after initial proportioning using a plasticity-based design procedure based on a linear elastic analysis. Nonlinear analysis can assist in the evaluation of complex geometry or poorly detailed structures where the effects of localized cracking, for example, may be poorly modelled by linear analysis. Situations where nonlinear analysis should be used: resistance of structures to extreme events, pushover analyses for structural capacity computation, resistance to fire, estimation of P- effects.

Nonlinear Mechanics of Reinforced Concrete - Infoscience

The first finite element model of a cracked reinforced concrete beam [2] The tables below table 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 presents important nonlinear effects observed in structural concrete. Table 1. Behavioural effects Types of Behavioural Effects Energy Energy balance may need to be considered to fully model listed effect Stiffness Elements must include variable stiffnesses to fully model the listed effect Bifurcation Indicates a discrete change in behaviour rather than a smooth transition Plastic strains Indicates that simple nonlinear elasticity may not provide a full solution Behaviour cannot be fully modelled with strain terms alone.

Modelling also Size dependent requires an absolute distance relationship such as a crack width Table 2. Concrete in compression Three important aspects of concrete compressive behaviour are presented: localization in compression, confinement of concrete, and compression softening. As concrete shows a decrease in stress for increasing strains beyond the strain associated with the compressive strength, localization of concrete in compression can be expected.

Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering and Computational Mechanics

Two primary effects will result from this: firstly larger specimens failing primarily in a compressive mode can be expected to show less ductility in the post-peak region than smaller specimens and, secondly, a size effect is predicted for some member types whereby larger elements in compression will be weaker in terms of stress than smaller elements. Some tests on specialized structural components confirm the presence of a size effect in unreinforced flexural compression zones [4].


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Concrete can carry higher compressive stresses with larger deformations when it is laterally confined. Finite element models can require either biaxial or triaxial confinement relationships. One of the earlier 3D failure surface models that incorporated this strength enhancement was that of Ottosen [5] fig. Failure surface for Concrete One model which is often used in non-linear elasticity is the Kent and Park [6] model later modified by Scott et al. Modified Kent end Park model [7] As strains perpendicular to the direction of applied compression increase, this strength reduction effect, often called compression softening, becomes more severe.

Concrete in tension The most important aspect of concrete is cracking. There is more than one way to include tension in finite element analyses of concrete structures table 6. Table 6. Modelling of tension stiffening Modelling of tension stiffening can be done in two ways: the first is to modify the stiffness of reinforcing bars - the tensile stresses are transferred to concrete through bond, the second is to modify the concrete stiffness to carry the tension force after generation of cracks using the smeared crack model and the discrete crack model.

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Modelling of concrete cracks In finite element models the cracks can be considered either as smeared throughout the element or only present at finite element boundaries wich is known as discrete cracking. Submit Your Paper. Supports Open Access. View Articles. Track Your Paper Check submitted paper Due to migration of article submission systems, please check the status of your submitted manuscript in the relevant system below: Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EVISE Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EES: Username Password I forgot my password.


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